本篇論文旨在分析洛克《政府論次講》一書中，在設定自然狀態演進的過程裡，讓人們取得財產的方式受到自然法的主要兩種限制 : 充足性限制和損壞的限制，並且分析這些限制將對人們造成什麼樣的影響。本篇論文的主要章節會分為四部分第一章是關於17世紀英國現實社會與洛克《政府論次講》一書的對比與影響。第二章重點在於描述人類慾望受到資源與自然法限制時的自然狀態。第三章則著重於貨幣克服自然法的損壞限制後使積累慾望可滿足，在這過程中將產生相關資源匱乏的問題以及雇傭契約的擴大應用等等。人們進入公民社會是為了保護自身財產。在公民社會中，社會成員會面臨兩難的情況，像是統治者的命令與社會成員的道德良心相衝突的情況。第四章主要分析成員們面對兩難時的判斷。
關鍵字 : 上帝、公民社會、社會契約、貨幣、慾望、財產、戰爭狀態、理性、自然狀態、自然法、自然權利
It was stated in Lock’s Second Treatise of Government that in the state of nature, two limitatioms of natural law are imposed on how people acquire their property : the sufficiency and the spoilage limitation. This paper aims at analyzing how these limtations affect people’s behaving in the state of nature.The thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter deals with the contrast between the realities of the British society in the 17th century and the relevant ideas in Lock’s Second Treatise of Government, as well as the former’s influence on the latter.The focus of the second chapter is on the state of nature in which human desires are restricted by the shortage of resources and the limitations of natural law. The third chapter will discuss how the introduction of money in the state of nature removes the spoilage limitation and thereby makes the desire to accumulation satisfied. It will stress that this process, though enlarging our possesions, at the same time brings about the problem of the shortage of resources caused by the extention of employment relations. In this sense, I will point out that the other limitation of natural law, i.e. the sufficiency limitation, will not be overcome by the introduction of money. The purpose of peoples’s entering into civil society is for the protection of property. But the members of civil society will face a serious problem that the soverign might sometimes fail to serve that purpose. As a result of it. Situations of conflict between the demand of the sovereign and the conscience of social members arise. The question of how members of civil society make their judgements about this moral dilemma will be analysed in the 4th chap.
Keywords : God、Civil Society、Social Contract、Money、Desire、Property、The State of War、Reason、The State of Nature、Natural Law、Natural Ｒight