The main purpose of this article is to probe into the connection between experience case and moral philosophy. By taking the discussion of euthanasia as an example, I will extend several related issues and illustrate the standpoints of proponents and opponents. As to the experience case, I will make the statement aiming at the specific court decisions or the basic content in the medical cases in terms of the subject of euthanasia and then analyze its reasonableness and validity in the process of demonstration. With respect to moral philosophy, I will point out several scholars' philosophy theories and viewpoints to make the contrast or apply them to the related content in the euthanasia experience case.
The analyzing process of this article is as following. First, I will define Ronald Dworkin's and Richard A. Posner's argument regarding moral and legal issues. The diversity of Dworkin's and Posner's opinions underlines not only the difference in the connection between law and ethical principles but also the interdependence relationship between them. If the moral philosophy and legal decisions have considerable degree of correlation, we can further using the experience case to analyze the rationality and validity of legalization of euthanasia through philosophical argumentation; Second, I will clarify the definition of "person," "autonomy," or "death" in the fields of philosophy, law, and medicine as the foundation to analyze the disputations of euthanasia; Third, I will analyze the content of the judgment of a real case ─Washington v. Glucksberg and explain the Supreme Court of the United States' reasons and viewpoints regarding State of Washington's legal system, such as "due process," "the acts and omissions question," and "best interest". Based on the moral arguments and legal principles of these court decisions, I will discuss the topic in detail; Finally, back to the discussion of the individual hard case, I'll then display the outcome of the experience cases among Xiao-Ming Wang, Nancy Cruzan and Karen Ann Quinlan. After that, I will use Alan Dershowitz's "nurture" concept of the right, J. S. Mill's principle of Liberalism, and the concept of "categorical imperative" and "dignity" in Kant's philosophy to apply to the analysis that has discussed above and the judgment of the experience cases in Taiwan and the United States.
Keywords:euthanasia, hard case, autonomy, irreversible coma, best interest, slippery slope argument, nurture, principle of liberty, categorical imperative