The Research of “Qi Theory”
The book Guan Zi has practically seventy-six chapters nowadays, and including the various of thoughts in Legalism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Ying-Yang Jia. It not only shows the Ji-Xia’s spectacular period that every school was famous for their own unique theory at that age, but also represents a generalization of scholars’ academic theories during the Warring States.
The main purpose of this theory discusses the “Qi” in Guan Zi, and from that point, looking at the way Ji-Xia’s Taoism held the tradition of Lao Zi. Unlike Zhuang Zi’s development in different phase, in Guan Zi, the idea of “Qi” did not emphasize on the theoretical Qi, but more of giving care to the people and their relationships. It involves the concept of natural Qi in cycling of the four seasons of the universe and the descriptions of Qi that is inside of the human’s body and conscious. Regarding to the explanation which is for the nature of the universal Qi says that the significant point not only shows the connection and interaction between universe and human beings, but also exists in human’s body and mind. Guan Zi had used many different names to correlate with Qi to make out his explanations, such as Qi of blood, Qi of Xin, Qi of resentment and so on. It expresses that Qi is filled and shown within human’s body. Moreover, the higher valuable part is that concept in “Qi”. Guan Zi illustrated that not only Qi is being able to use as “Tao’s” performance in the human bodies, but also “Tao” can be used as the abstract values and meanings such as in the politics and society. Under Ji-Xia, the goal of Taoism’s theory is made by people. “Tao” is used to be the foundation to associate the society and so it can be differentiated from “Lao Zi’s and Zhuang Zi’s” theory. By including the Huang Lao’s idea, Guan Zi’s thought was very much popped out.
In Guan Zi, “Qi” and “Tao” have a deep connection with the “Xin” as well. “Xin” contains not only both “Tao” and “Qi”, but itself indeed has the basic meaning of “Xin” in “Qi of blood” and the knowing of the main function in the five senses. In addition, how dose the “Xin” holding the “Qi”, and then achieving the “Tao”, is also the path of learning and understanding life.
This thesis includes totally five chapters; here are the subjects in each chapter.
Chapter 1: Explaining the studies relative to the Guan Zi is discussed by scholars. This chapter analyses scholars’ researches and gives a statement to them, like which school would Guan Zi’s study belong to and so on.
Chapter 2: Talking about the idea of “Qi” and its origin, and its development of Lao-Zi’s and Zhuang-Zi’s theory of Qi in the Taoist philosophy.
Chapter 3: Discussing the idea of Qi’s existence. In Guan Zi, “Qi” has the meaning of the natural Qi existing in the universe, and also the Qi inside human’s body and mind. The natural Qi means the Qi belonged to the four seasons in the space. The “Qi” contained in the four seasons and five elements, represents the connections among the humans and the natural law. In Guan Zi, the natural “Qi” was used as a discussion on human’s body, saying that “Qi” is the source of life and the power of all sources. This “Qi” is also called “Jing-Qi”. If human beings can hold their “Qi” and not losing it, they would have a better health.
Chapter 4: Researching from observing “Xin” to discuss the knowing and the self-possession of “Qi”. In Guan Zi, conscious basically means that it’s within the human bodies, and has the “Qi of blood” and the function of controlling the senses. Further than that, human’s self-possession and understanding is based upon how to the “Xin” was cultured, in a fact it is mostly about how to gain and know the power. The perfect condition of “Xin” is “Chuan Xin”, it means the conscious has “Jing and Qi” in the status of fulfilled with “Tao”. Under this circumstance, it is the most perfect status of a human’s mind, body and knowing.
Chapter 5: Conclusion. Talking about Guan Zi differentiate from the development of Lao Zi’s and Zhuang Zi’s “Qi”, “Xin” and “Tao”, and look into Guan Zi’s studies in the future.
Key Words：Guan Zi，Qi，Jing-Qi，Tao，Xin，Lao Zi， Zhuang Zi