Jean-Jacques Rousseau is one of the prominent figures in the history of political philosophy. Through the explanations of the theory of the state of nature in the Second Discourse, which usually treat his political and philosophical thought separately, Rousseau’s original idea is made unclear. As a matter of fact, Rousseau’ theory of the state of nature is imbued with his philosophical thought, which made a difference from the Classical Natural Law School. In order to reconstruct Rousseau’s original philosophy, the connection between his political and philosophical thought will be discussed in this thesis, which begins with his theory of the state of nature in the Second Discourse. The different uses of the concept of the state of nature between Rousseau’s and the Classical Natural Law School will be treated in detail. It will be further explained how to connect his theory of the state of nature and his political idea and how to unify them into an integral whole.
Keywords: Rousseau, Hobbes, state of nature, natural law