默會致知與科學共同體─邁可•博蘭尼科學觀之研究

學年度:91
學期:1
校院:東吳大學
系所:社會學系碩士班
論文名稱(中):默會致知與科學共同體─邁可•博蘭尼科學觀之研究
論文名稱(英):
學位類別:碩士
語文別:chi
學號:88615001
頁數:102
研究生姓名(中):范漢威
研究生姓名(英):Fan, Han Wei
指導教授姓名(中):蔡錦昌
指導教授姓名(英):Choi, kam-cheong
關鍵字(中):客觀主義、個人知識、默會致知、科學共同體
關鍵字(英):Objectivism, personal knowledge, tacit knowing, scientific community

 


中文提要:

        本論文主要探討的是邁可•博蘭尼的學問要旨,包括對客觀主義科學觀的反省、作為融合個人性和客觀性的個人知識、默會致知的基本結構和科學共同體的運作。對於客觀主義科學觀所主張的科學知識客觀性,博蘭尼予以深刻的反省和批判。這種以主客觀相互分離為基礎的科學觀所追求的是與人無關的、普遍公認的、客觀的真知識。博蘭尼認為這種科學超然的理想,是一種虛假的理想,因為一切真實知識都少不了個人的參與,任何受智識熱情所驅使的致知行為,都是一項負責任、聲稱具有普遍效力的行為。這種以默會致知為基礎的、企圖與隱藏實相接觸的致知行為,才是一切知識的本質和合理性的基礎,也就是融合著個人性與客觀性的個人知識。博蘭尼也以科學共同體做為個人知識的背景,詳細描述了科學共同體的科學傳統、科學共識、科學教育、道德堅信與權威特質等諸多面向。並在此基礎之上,以「個人的」概念融合「主觀的和客觀的」、「個體的和社會的」不同面向,同時也為科學方法論建立起全新的視野。

     

英文提要:

      The disquisition is searching for the gist of Michael Polanyi's doctrine, including the reflection to objectivist conception of science, the fusion of the personal and objective as personal knowledge, the fundamental structure of tacit knowing and the operation of scientific community. Polanyi criticizes the objectivity of scientific knowledge asserted by objectivist conception of science. This conception of science, based on the disjunction of subjectivity and objectivity, seek at the true knowledge is deemed impersonal, universally established, objective. Polanyi thinks it's the ideal of scientific detachment, a false ideal. All factual knowledge can't lack personal participation and all the act of knowing guided by intellectual passions is a responsible act claiming universal validity. The act of knowing based on tacit knowing, aspires to contact with a hidden reality, is not only the foundation of the nature and justification of scientific knowledge, but personal knowledge, the fusion of the personal and objective. Polanyi also thinks that the scientific community is the background of personal knowledge, and describes so many aspects of scientific community in detail, such as the tradition of science, the consensus in science, scientific education, the moral conviction in science, the characters of authority, and so on. On this footing, Polanyi fuses the subjective and objective, the individual and social by the concept of personal, and establishes an all-new vision for the scientific methodology.