全球化、國家與在地條件:台灣香蕉產業的發展

學年度:92
學期:1
校院:東吳大學
系所:社會學系碩士班
論文名稱(中):全球化、國家與在地條件:台灣香蕉產業的發展
論文名稱(英):Globalization, the State and Local Conditions: the Developement of Taiwan Banana Industry
學位類別:碩士
語文別:chi
學號:89315004
頁數:97
研究生姓名(中):郭文智
研究生姓名(英): Guo, Wen-Zhi
指導教授姓名(中):張家銘
指導教授姓名(英):Chang, Chia- Ming
關鍵字(中):香蕉產業、全球化、國家、在地條件、制度—全球商品鏈
關鍵字(英): Banana industry, Globalization, State, Local Conditions, System- Global Commodity Chain

 


中文提要:

  研究者採用「制度—全球商品鏈」雙元分析觀點,深入探究影響台蕉發展與衰落的因素,在這個觀點下,可以解釋日商、國家、蕉商組織和蕉農組織的行動策略,同時瞭解對台蕉產業發展的影響的事件的意義及因素。

   在1963年前,台蕉能持續發展的重要因素在於台日間「以貨易貨」貿易制度的保護之下,它提供台蕉良好價格的保證,但卻壓抑了台蕉的總體生產力;另外以美資為主的跨國公司,在生產技術經驗成熟和資本的優勢下,逐漸將生產和銷售觸角推向全球各地區。全球蕉貿網絡的形構,在日本於1963年開放市場時,使得台蕉產業面臨和其他地區香蕉競爭的局面。

  國家為了因應挑戰,介入整個產銷體系,讓長久居於底層的蕉農有了反動的機會,雖然短期之內有了成效,達到了台蕉生產量的歷史高峰,但是卻意外深化了台蕉生產模式,導致「香蕉案」的爆發。另外,受限於在地條件影響,台蕉要做大規模的企業化經營,也顯得困難重重。

   然而,台蕉衰落的原因在於台蕉貿易體系(銷售帶動生產的體系)逐漸背離全球蕉貿體系(生產帶動銷售的體系),銷售帶動生產的體系是以區域貿易為主,這種貿易型態面臨競爭的劣勢在,無法有效規避生產的風險和香蕉價格調控的能力,生產風險的無法規避,導致生產商品無法滿足市場的需求,在外導致貿易關係的緊張,價格的調控能力不佳,在內鬆動產銷體系的關係;相對地,跨國公司卻在生產技術及經驗的積累下,不僅能針對新市場的需求作調整,而且能將生產的風險降至最低,最終達到穩固市場的效果。

   從台蕉的例子為借鑑,思考台灣未來農業和其他產業的發展,必須從「全球—在地」的這一組概念思辯,本地各項產業的生存和走向,必須從在地獨特商品出發,邁入全球生產的行徑路線,才有更多發展的空間。

 

英文提要:

  By the dual analytic view of “ System- Global Commodity Chain,” the researcher deeply explores the factors that influence the development and decadence of the Taiwan banana industry. Under this view, we could explain the act strategies of the Japanese businessmen, the state, organizations of the banana businessmen, and organizations of the banana peasants; moreover, we could understand the meanings and factors of events that affect the development of Taiwan banana industry.

  Before 1963, the reason why Taiwan banana industry could keep expanding was the “Change Goods by Goods” trade system between Taiwan and Japan. It provided the ensured good price for Taiwaneses banana; however, it suppressed the total production of Taiwaneses banana. On the other hand, the transnational corporations that most were American capital gradually expanded their business around the world. Once Japan opened its banana market, the construction of global network of banana business made the Taiwanese banana face the competition with the banana of other places around the world.

  For this challenge,the state involved in the production-selling system and made the peasants who were always at the bottom become the leading actors. The involvement had an effect that made the banana production in Taiwan reach the hilltop on the history, but it unexpectedly consolidated the system of banana production in Taiwan and at last brought about the “ Case of Golden Bowl.” In addition, because of the limitation of the local conditions, it was difficult for the Taiwan banana industry to become enterprising.

  However, the critical reason of decadence of Taiwan banana industry was Taiwan banana trade system (selling-driven system) gradually straying from the global banana trade system (production-driven system). When the selling-driven system, which depended on the local trades, was in the inferior position, it could not circumvent the risk of production and lost the ability to effectively regulate the price of bananas. All these led the trade relations to a tense situation and loosed the system between production and selling. On the other hand, the transnational corporations, because of their techniques and experiences, could regulate for the needs of the new markets and lower the risk of production most, therefore they finally got the stable markets.

  If we want draw lessons from the case of Taiwan banana industry to think the future of agriculture and other industries in Taiwan, we must think by the view of “ global-local.” On researcher’s opinion, if the Taiwan agriculture gets its local distinctive products and joins the global production, it would develop much well.